Guru Nanak Dev Ji II

Guru Nanak Dev Ji

 

THIRD UDASI:

The Third Udasi was undertaken towards the west. Guru Nanak reached Pakpatan (Ajodhan) where he met Sheikh Brahm who was the eleventh in succession to Baba Farid, whose Bani is also included in Guru Granth Sahib. The Guru had wide range of discussion with Sheikh Brahm. The Guru stated,

The Sheikh asked the Guru to explain,You say ,’There is only one God, why should there be a second?’, and I (Sheikh) say:

The Guru replied:

In a Var (like Asa di Var) there has to be two beings; and the Sheikh asked the Guru to let him hear a strain in praise of the One God. My idea is, said the Sheikh,that adoration cannot be performed without two beings, that is, God and the Prophet. Let me see whom thou makest man’s intercessor. Upon this the Guru asked Mardana to play the rebec and he uttered the first Slok and Pauri of Asa di Var:

Pauri:

God Himself created the world, and formed Himself into
Name,
He created Nature by His power; seated He beheld His
work with delight.
O Creator, Thou art the Giver; being pleased Thou bestowest
and practisest kindness.
Thou knowest all things; Thou givest and takest life with a
word.
Seated Thou beholdest Thy work with delight. (Asa Mohalla 1, p-462-63)

The Sheikh then wanted a knife,Give me such a knife that those who are killed with it, shall be acceptable to God. With the ordinary knife the lower animals are killed. If a man’s throat be cut with this knife, it becomes carrion.

The Guru replied in affirmative:

On hearing this the Sheikh raised his head in amazement and said,Well done. O Nanak, there is no difference between God and thee. Kindly bless me so that I too may be on good terms with Him. The Guru replied,Sheikh Brahm, God will cause thy ship to arrive safe. The Sheikh requested the Guru to give him the firm promise of this. The Guru complied and blessed him with salvation.

According to Puratan Janamsakhi, the first nine pauries (stanzas) of Asa di Var, were uttered by the Guru during the discussion with Sheikh Brahm and other fifteen pauries of Asa di Var were uttered for Duni Chand Dhuper of Lahore. The Guru then proceeded to Multan, Uch, Sakhar and reached Lakhpat, where a Gurdwara stands marking the memory of the Guru. Then he reached Kuriani where a tank is called after Guru’s name. He visited Miani, about fifty miles west of city of Karachi and visited the temples of Hindus and the Muslims in the area. Near Hinglaj, there is a Dharmsala preserving the memory of the Guru’s visit to this place. From there he boarded a ship for Arabia.

GURU NANAK AT MECCA:

He disguised himself in the blue dress of a Mohammadan pilgrim, took a faqir’s staff in his hand and a collection of his hymns called ‘Pothi’ under his arm. He also carried with him like a Muslim devotee, a cup for his ablutions and a rug whereon to pray. Like a pilgrim he went inside the great mosque where the pilgrims were engaged in their devotions. When he lay down to sleep at night, he turned his feet towards the Kaaba. A priest, Jiwan kicked him and said,Who is this infidel sleeping with his feet towards the House of God? The Guru replied,Turn my feet in the direction in which God is not. Upon this Jiwan seized the Guru’s feet and dragged them in the opposite direction. Whereupon, it is said, the Kaaba (temple) turned around, and followed the revolution of Guru’s body. Some say that when the Guru asked the priest to turn his feet in the direction where God was not, the priest came to realization that God was everywhere. But those who witnessed this miracle were astonished and saluted the Guru as a supernatural being.

Then the Qazis and the Mullas crowded round the Guru and asked whether he was a Muslim or a Hindu? The Guru replied that he was neither of the two. Then they asked,Who is the superior of the two, the Hindu or the Muslim? The Guru replied,Without good deeds, both will repent. The superiority lies in deeds and not in mere creeds. The chief priest was a seeker of the Truth and he asked for Guru’s blessings. The Guru preached the doctrine of Nam. He then gave instructions to the priest in the art of true living, to practice to live in His presence day and night and to glorify the Lord and thereby to rub out the dirt of sins from the tablet of the mind.

He disguised himself in the blue dress of a Mohammadan pilgrim, took a faqir’s staff in his hand and a collection of his hymns called ‘Pothi’ under his arm. He also carried with him like a Muslim devotee, a cup for his ablutions and a rug whereon to pray. Like a pilgrim he went inside the great mosque where the pilgrims were engaged in their devotions. When he lay down to sleep at night, he turned his feet towards the Kaaba. A priest, Jiwan kicked him and said,Who is this infidel sleeping with his feet towards the House of God? The Guru replied,Turn my feet in the direction in which God is not. Upon this Jiwan seized the Guru’s feet and dragged them in the opposite direction. Whereupon, it is said, the Kaaba (temple) turned around, and followed the revolution of Guru’s body. Some say that when the Guru asked the priest to turn his feet in the direction where God was not, the priest came to realization that God was everywhere. But those who witnessed this miracle were astonished and saluted the Guru as a supernatural being.

Then the Qazis and the Mullas crowded round the Guru and asked whether he was a Muslim or a Hindu? The Guru replied that he was neither of the two. Then they asked,Who is the superior of the two, the Hindu or the Muslim? The Guru replied,Without good deeds, both will repent. The superiority lies in deeds and not in mere creeds. The chief priest was a seeker of the Truth and he asked for Guru’s blessings. The Guru preached the doctrine of Nam. He then gave instructions to the priest in the art of true living, to practice to live in His presence day and night and to glorify the Lord and thereby to rub out the dirt of sins from the tablet of the mind.

GURU JI AT MEDINA:

In due time the Guru proceeded to Medina, another holy city of the Muslims where their Prophet Mohammad lived for many years and breathed his last. He reached at nightfall and stopped outside the town. It happened to be a place where lepers were segregated and no provision was made for their comfort or treatment. History states that the Guru healed them all and as a result, the people came in crowds to have holy glimpse of the Guru. After that he journeyed to Bagdad through Basra.

GURU JI AT BAGDAD:

There lived a very famous Muslim saint, Pir Abdul Kadar who died in Bagdad in 1166 A.D. He was also known as Dastgir and his successors were called Dastgirs too. The Muslim high priests did not like unethical and immoral musical verses. Instead of condemning the demoralizing poetry, they outrightly rejected the music (‘Rag’) itself. So according to Muslim Shariat (code of law), music was forbidden. The whole of Sikh scripture is in verse and in various different forms of Rags and Raginis. In the morning the Guru shouted the call for prayer, on which the whole population became rapt in silent astonishment. May be he did it differently than the Muslims. Then Mardana played the rebec and the Guru started the Sabad Kirtan (musical recitation of Gurbani). Whosoever heard was in ecstasy. The news spread in the city. The high priest Pir Dastgir, another holy man, Bahlol and others came to see the Guru.

According to the Mohammadans there are seven skies above the earth and seven nethers including earth itself. The Guru began to recite the Japji. When he repeated the twenty-second pauri (stanza) of Japji, the Pir got wonder-stuck hearing something contrary to the authority of the holy Quran, that there were hundreds of thousands of nethers and upper regions, and that at last men grew weary of searching for them. The Pir then called upon the Guru to give a manifestation of what he said. Upon this it is said, the Guru laid his hand on the priest’s son and showed him upper and lower regions described in Japji- pauri 22. To prove whether the boy actually saw those regions, he brought Parshad (sacred food) from one of those regions and gave it to his father. Both the Pir and Bahlol bowed before the Guru and asked for his blessings.

Bahlol became Guru’s follower. It is said that he spent sixty years at the foot of the slab, where the sacred feet of the Guru had rested during their discussion. Later on a shrine was built there in the memory of the Guru. The English translation of the inscription on the slab inside the shrine is:

In memory of the Guru, that is the Divine Master, Baba Nanak, Faqir Aulia, this building has been raised with the help of seven saints, and the chronogram reads. The blessed disciple has produced a spring of Grace year 917 (Muslim year).

Swami Anand Acharya of Sweden mentions in his book ‘Snow Bird’, published by Macmillan & Sons, London, that during his visit to Bagdad, he found another inscription on the slab, dated 917 Hijri. The inscription reads:

Here spoke the Hindi Guru Nanak to Faqir Bahlol, and for these sixty years since the Guru left Iraq, the soul of Bahlol has rested on the Master’s word like a bee poised on a dawn-lit honey rose.

RETURN FROM BAGDAD:

From Bagdad the Guru passed through Iran, Turkstan and Afghanistan and then reached Kabul. Some writers believe that the Guru took the popular route from Bagdad towards Tehran, Kandhar and reached Kabul. On his way he passed through Mehds. Bhai Mani Singh’s Janamsakhi makes a reference of his visit to this place. Since the visit of Guru Nanak to Kabul, the Sikh contacts had been carefully maintained. Sikh preachers were stationed there to disseminate the teachings of the Guru. At one time Bhai Gurdas also served as one of the Sikh missionaries at Kabul.

From Kabul the Guru proceeded to Jalalabad, Sultanpur and passed through Khyber Pass to reach Peshawar. There are Gurdwaras at Jalalabad and Sultanpur to mark his visit. There are springs of water associated with his visit. The Guru paid a visit to the Gorakh Hatri and had discourse with Jogis. He also went to Hassan Abdal, now known as Panja Sahib, and sat at the foot of the hill.

GURU NANAK AND VALI KANDHARI:

On the top of a small hill, there lived a Muslim Faqir called Vali Kandhari who was well-known in the area for possessing miraculous powers. Mardana needed water which could only be obtained from Vali. Mardana told Vali that Guru Nanak had arrived and he advised him to see the Guru, who was a great saint of God. Vali who claimed holiness exclusively for himself, became offended on hearing the Guru’s praises. He refused to give water saying that if the Guru were such a holy man, he could provide water to Mardana. When this reply was communicated to the Guru, he sent Mardana back to the Vali with a message that he (Guru) was a poor creature of God, and laid no claims to be a saint. The Vali paid no heed to this protestation and still refused to provide water.

Upon this the Guru picked up one stone and a stream of water immediately issued forth. In fact this water came out from the Vali’s tank which dried up. This naturally increased Vali’s rage and it is said that through his miraculous powers he hurled a small hillock upon Guru Nanak’s unoffending head. The Guru, on seeing the descending hillock, held up his right hand, and as it touched the hand of the Divine Master, the hillock came to a standstill. With the divine touch, the stone melted and softened like wax and left the mark of the Master’s palm indelibly deep into it. Vali Kandhari was very much astonished and at last fell at the feet of the Guru and begged for forgiveness. The Guru expressed,O friend, those who live so high, should not be hard at heart like a stone. Vali was blessed by the Master.

The imprint of the Guru’s hand (Punja) is still visible on the stone and the pool of crystal clear water still flows from there. There stands a Gurdwara which is known as ‘Punja Sahib’. It is now situated in west Pakistan.

GURU AT SAIDPUR:

The Guru proceeded a second time to Saiyidpur or Saidpur, now known as Eminabad, where he again visited Bhai Lalo. Lalo complained to him of the oppression of the Pathans, who were leading a luxurious life caring little for others. The Guru replied that their dominion should be brief, as Baber was on his way for the conquest of India. Baber invaded the Punjab for the third time and it was the year 1521. He sacked the town of Eminabad and subjected it to massacre, loot and rape. It was a horrible scene, which Guru Nanak himself describes that there laid in the dust, the fairy heads of the damsels and beautiful women.

Most of the writers including many Sikhs say that seeing this horrible scene, the Guru appealed in anguish to the Almighty when he said:

‘Eti mar pai kurlane tai ki dard na aaya.’ (Asa Mohalla 1, p-360)

And they translate the above verse as:

‘When there was such slaughter and lamentation,
didst not Thou, O God, feel pain?’

Let us examine if these writers are correct. Did the Guru make such an anguished appeal to God or not?

A. In the very first stanza (pauri) of Japji on the very first page of Guru Granth Sahib, Guru Nanak says:

‘Hukam rajai chalna Nanak likhia nal.’

Translation:
‘O Nanak thus runneth the Writ Divine,
The righteous path, let it be thine.’

Again in Asa Mohalla 5, page 394, it is stated:

‘Tera kia meetha lagei
Har nam padarth Nanak mangei.’

Translation:
‘Sweet be Thy Will,
My Lord Nanak beseecheth the gift of nam.’

The above quotations mean that whatever happens in life, should be willfully accepted. In the house of Guru Nanak, there is no room for tears or cries. There is no place for appeal before the Divine Writ. One must embrace God’s Will as the sweetest gift of life. This is the first lesson preached by Guru Nanak to the humanity in Japji. How could then the Guru go into anguish? Does the Divine Jot also feel anguish?

B. The Guru assures that a true devotee’s prayers are always answered by the Almighty and are accepted by Him:

‘Nanak das mukh te jo bolai eeha uha sach howai.’ (Dhanasri Mohalla 5, p-681)

Translation:
‘Whatever God’s servant, Nanak, uttereth shall prove
to be true both in this world and the next.’

Being embodiment of Divine Light, if the Guru had appealed to the Almighty, He should have accepted his appeal and should have punished Baber. History reminds us that Baber’s dynasty was rather blessed with a rule for seven generations.

C. The Guru had reached Eminabad before Baber’s attack on the city, and he uttered the Sabad given below in which he told Lalo about the oncoming massacre. He had warned some people to leave the city and they actually did:

‘As the word of the Lord cometh to me, so do I
narrate it, O Lalo,
Bringing a bridal procession of sin, Baber
has hasted from Kabul and demandeth wealth
as his bride, O Lalo;
Modesty and religion have vanished, falsehood
marcheth in van, O Lalo;
They sing the paean of murder, O Nanak, and smear
themselves with the saffron of blood.
Nanak singeth the praises of the Lord in the city
of corpses and uttereth this commonplace-
He who made men, assigned them different
positions,

He sitteth apart alone and regardeth them.
True is the Lord, true His decision, true the
justice He meteth out as an example.
Bodies shall be cut like shreds of cloth;
Hindustan will remember what I say. (Tilang Mohalla 1, p-722)

In view of the above analysis, it seems quite evident that the Guru did not appeal to God, but the dauntless Gur Nanak Jot addressed that Sabad to Baber, who then fell on the feet of the Guru and asked for forgiveness.

Baber wrote in his memoirs,The inhabitants of Saidpur were put to sword, their wives and children carried into captivity and all their property plundered.

Many people were killed and most of the rest were taken as prisoners by the Baber’s army. It is said that the Guru along with his minstrel Mardana, were also taken to the concentration camp. The prisoners were given handmills to grind the corn. The Guru asked Mardana to play on his rebec and he then started kirtan. As the Divine Sabad was sung- all the prisoners came and sat around the Guru, every grinding mill started working automatically. On seeing this supernatural phenomenon, the guards stood spell-bound and they sent the word to Baber, who came and witnessed the whole scene with his own eyes. Baber was wonder-stuck and asked the Guru if he could offer him anything. Boldly replied the Guru:

‘Hear, O Baber Mir
Foolish is the Faqir
Who begs anything of thee
Whose own hunger has not appeased.’

Baber said,O holy man, I see God in thy face. I will do anything you ask for.

The Guru then uttered the following Sabad and put most of the blame of killings on Baber:

‘Thou ruled over Khurasan,
Now thou terrified Hindustan (India),
He has sent you the Moghal as a messenger of death,
Has slaughter and lamentations
Awakened no compassion in thee?
The Creator is the Supreme Lord,
If a strong man beats another strong man
No feelings of resentment arise;
But if a ravening lion falls on a herd, its master should
show his manliness. (Asa Mohalla 1, page 360)

This is the Sabad which other writers have attributed to as Guru’s appeal to God. In actuality, this was Guru placing the blame on Baber.

The Guru asked Baber, when his army fell like a lion on these innocent men, women and children, did he feel any pain for them?

Baber was overtaken by remorse. A new moral and spiritual consciousness was awakened in him, and he fell on the feet of the Guru. He asked the Guru to be gracious unto him. (History has revealed that kings were always afraid of the curses of the holy men).

The Guru replied,If thou, O Emperor, desireth kindness, set all thy captives free. Baber agreed on the condition that his empire should be blessed by the Guru and should be allowed to continue for generations. The Guru promised, Thine empire shall remain for a long time. Upon this the Emperor ordered all the prisoners be set free. Baber then asked the Guru for instructions to rule. The Guru explained,Deliver just judgement, reverence for holy men, forswear wine and gambling. The monarch who indulgeth in these vices shall, if he survives, bewail his misdeeds. Be merciful to the vanquished, and worship God in spirit and in truth.

Now the question is why was Baber blessed with kingdoms instead of being punished? The Gurbani (Divine Word) says:

‘Jo saran awai tis kanth lawai eho birdh swamy sanda.’ (Bihagra Mohalla 5,p-544)

Translation:
‘God embraces him who seeketh His protection; This is
the characteristic of the Lord.’

The Guru tells us that the characteristic of his Master (God) is such that whosoever begs His pardon, falls on His feet for forgiveness, He embraces him. Since Guru Nanak himself was the embodiment of Divine Spirit, he pardoned Baber when he sought for forgiveness, and he blessed him with a boon of Moghal dynasty which continued for a long time.

GURU AT KARTARPUR:

After the third and the last Udasi the Guru returned to Kartarpur. He travelled all over to preach the gospel of Nam and communicating new awakening in the people’s mind to realize Truth. In order that his work should last, he established a network of centers which were called Manjis, side by side with the centers of all other faiths. When he finished his long travels, he settled down at Kartarpur for the rest of about twenty years of his life. He knew that unless he centralized the activities of his new faith, he could not expect it to survive. There were now Sikh centers all over India, Ceylon, Tibet and the Middle East. No founder of any religion had built such a vast organization, breaking all provincial, national, international and cultural barriers, during his life time. When he went abroad on his missionary tours, he put up the robes of religious orders of the holy places he visited. Holiness in those places was inseparable from the holy garbs. When he came back to Kartarpur, he doffed his pilgrim’s dress, and wore worldly garments in order to show that he did not desire his followers to devote themselves to an ascetic life. At the same time he sat on his religious throne, and started preaching to the people.

FORMATION OF SANGAT:

First he formed the holy communion which was called Sangat, and the place where the holy communion was held called Gurdwara (House of the Guru). Emphasis were laid on religious instructions and strict discipline. The Japji was recited at the ambrosial hour of the morning, the Sodar (Rehras) in the evening and Kirtan Sohila at night before going to bed. Divine measures (Kirtan) were sung in his presence in the morning as well as in the evening. Regular religious instructions were imparted by the Guru. Such instructions could be given to the individual followers and also in the regular gathering. In order to be the Sikhs of the Guru, the followers were baptized by receiving Charanpauhal (also called Charanamrit). This was the form of initiation administered by drinking the water in which the Guru’s feet (generally toe) had been washed, the preamble of Japji was read at the same time, and the ceremony was inaugurated by the Guru himself. The emphasis was laid on the greatness of God, upon His gracious self-revelation, upon the perils of human condition, and upon the paramount necessity of meditation on Divine Name. Those who took pride in their status of caste or wealth, would be sternly admonished, and any one who depended on religious hypocrisy would be soundly condemned. The Guru enunciated an integral view of the spiritual and moral life and those who imbibed it, tried to realize its essence in their own daily conduct. The Guru’s teachings emphasized on two things in particular; against limiting of the spiritual and moral conduct to ritual actions, and against confining the moral action to the individual self, or to such narrow confines as one’s tribe, race or denomination. His teaching had great effect on the people and many of them embraced his religion. Bhai Buddha, Bhai Lehna (later Guru Angad), Taru Poput, Prithi, Kheda, Ajita Randhawa, Sheikh Mallo and Ubre Khan are some of the examples of conversions at first sight to the faith of the Guru.

LIVING BY HONEST MEANS:

Emphasis were laid on honest hard labor for living. Asceticism was explicitly rejected and instead a disciplined worldliness and family life was set forth as the proper course for the believer. Earnest living through honest hard labor and then out of that hard earned money, giving in the name of the Lord, was the moral way to bring up the family. The Guru himself set up this example by working with his hands in the fields for the remaining about 18 to 20 years of his life at Kartarpur. He emphasized this course in the following Sabad:

Men without divine knowledge sing hymns.
The Hungry Mulla maketh a home of his mosque.

One who earneth nothing slitteth his ears;
Another becometh a beggar and loseth his caste.
Touch not at all the feet of those
Who call themselves gurus and pirs, and go begging.
They who eat the fruit of their labor and bestow something
in the name of Lord,
O Nanak, recognize the right way. (Sarang ki Var, Slok Mohalla 1, p-1245)

COMMON FREE KITCHEN- GURU KA LANGAR:

Every one worked for his living and gave a part of his earning for the free kitchen called Guru ka Langar. All people, the Brahman or the Sudra, the king or the commoner, the Muslim or the Hindu, had to sit in the same row and eat the same food.

Previous Page

Next Page

 

World Gurudwaras

World Gurudwaras will strive to be most comprehensive directory of Historical Gurudwaras and Non Historical Gurudwaras around the world.The etymology of the term ‘gurdwara’ is from the words ‘Gur (ਗੁਰ)’ (a reference to the Sikh Gurus) and ‘Dwara (ਦੁਆਰਾ)’ (gateway in Gurmukhi), together meaning ‘the gateway through which the Guru could be reached’. Thereafter, all Sikh places of worship came to be known as gurdwaras.

Visit World Gurudwaras

 

 

Search Gurbani

SearchGurbani brings to you a unique and comprehensive approach to explore and experience the word of God. It has the Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji, Amrit Kirtan Gutka, Bhai Gurdaas Vaaran, Sri Dasam Granth Sahib and Kabit Bhai Gurdas. You can explore these scriptures page by page, by chapter index or search for a keyword. The Reference section includes Mahankosh, Guru Granth Kosh,and exegesis like Faridkot Teeka, Guru Granth Darpan .

Visit Search Gurbani

 

The Sikh Encyclopedia

Encyclopedias encapsulate accurate information in a given area of knowledge and have indispensable in an age which the volume and rapidity of social change are making inaccessible much that outside one’s immediate domain of concentration.At the time when Sikhism is attracting world wide notice, an online reference work embracing all essential facets of this vibrant faith is a singular contribution to the world of knowledge.

Visit The Sikh Encyclopedia

Contacts

103 – 12975 84 AVE

SURREY BC V3W1B3

CANADA

+1 778 952 3485

singhsikhsociety@gmail.com

Socials

© 2020 Baba Deep Singh Sikh Society