Daya Singh Rahit-Nama: II


The contents of the prose version of the Daya Singh Rahit-nama may be summarized as follows.

The Khalsa 

The benefits of the Khalsa

The Guru ‘s Khalsa is the image of Akal Purakh manifested to the world. Believe this and you will end the round of death and rebirth. Akal Purakh is joined to the Khalsa in faith. Devi and the gods have given various items required for initiation into the Khalsa (amrit). Whereas faith in the Khalsa is exalted, all others are wholly insignificant. At the command of Akal Purakh the wondrous Panth appeared. Believing that the Guru was present in both Granth and Panth entire families attained spiritual liberation. He is a Khalsa who has totally surrendered himself to Guru Akal Purakh. [2-4, 13, 22, 43, 45]


The Rahit

A Sikh is known by his faith in the divine Word. He should be recognized by the Rahit which he inwardly observes. Let him drink the amrit of the Divine Name and put on the kachh of restraint. Never abandon the Rahit. [18, 71, 74]



Items 64–5 provide a detailed account of the Khalsa procedure for holding a service of worship.

Duties of a Khalsa Sikh

The Singh ‘s duty is to repeat the Word (shabad), to learn how to wield weapons, and to enshrine the mantra ` Vah guru’ in his heart, repeating it with every breath in and every breath out, and thereby fixing it within his inner being (man). [10]


Duty to fellow members of the Khalsa

All Singhs are brothers and equals. Wash their hair and clothe them. Gifts given to a Singh are received by the Guru. Do not call a Singh by only half of his name. Do not touch the feet of anyone who is not a Khalsa Sikh, but certainly touch the feet of a Khalsa. Do not bow to anyone except a Singh. Do not abuse a Singh. Achieve spiritual liberation by massaging the feet or pressing the limbs of other Singhs. [26, 27, 34, 36, 46, 80]


Character and Behaviour


The Guru is the incarnation (avatar) of Akal Purakh. The world is like an ocean, across which the Guru carries his followers. [8, 13, 22]



Put on the Guru’s sacred words (bani) as your weapons and firmness of intellect as your kes. Recite an Ardas before every important undertaking. Obey the Guru’s commands. Those who are spiritually liberated utter `Vahi guru’, even those who have been initiated by charan pahul. [10, 14, 19, 78]


Dress and outward appearance

Clothing should be dark grey, white, yellow, or green. Do not wear red clothing. Wear a close-fitting garment which fastens with tapes. First let clothing touch the Granth and then wear it. Anyone who wears a topi will be reborn a leper. 1)o not sleep naked at night. [23, 25, 28, 36, 62, 80]


The Kachh

The punishment for not wearing a loin cloth or a dhoti is hell. The kachh should be made from 2 1 / 2 to 5 metres (gaz) of cloth. Every fourth day the kachh should be washed. When changing his kachh a Singh must withdraw one leg and put it the leg-hole of another pair before withdrawing the second leg. The kachh must not conceal the knees. Always have on your person a kachh, a knife (karad), a wrist-ring (hard), and a finger-ring (chiral)). [21, 38, 56, 57, 70]


The Kes & Body Hair

The kes merits great respect, the noblest of all features. Twice a clay hair should be combed. Wash your hair in whey, milk, and ghi, drying it in the sun and decorating it with flowers. Protect it from dust. Then tie your turban and take food. Do not apply oil to your kes. Do not cut any of your body hair. He who receives Mande ki pahul and yet does not maintain his kes uncut, is an impostor. [19, 20, 24, 38, 58, 63, 86]


The Turban

The top-knot should be kept in the centre of the head and the turban neatly tied. The kes should always be covered. Twice a day hair should be combed and the turban retied. Carry a steel knife (lohe ki karad) in your turban. The punishment for leaving the kes uncovered is hell. Do not place your turban on your knee. [20, 23, 38, 82]


Bathing and personal hygiene

Do not bathe naked. Cut your finger-nails in such a way that they do not fall into your food. Do not apply antimony to the eyes during the day. [24, 63, 80]


The Hookah and Tobacco

Do not use snuff or tobacco. Smoking a hookah is strictly banned. Land which has grown tobacco is polluted. If you touch tobacco you must bathe in the pool at Amritsar. If you chew it everything is lost. Fall at the feet of anyone who spurns tobacco, even though he may look like a rishi with matted hair. [24, 33, 57, 68, 81, 89]


Family Responsibilities

A Singh should have his son initiated as a Singh. A Singh should give advice to his son. Do not kill your daughter. Do not marry your daughter to a person who cuts his hair. Marry her to a Sikh. Giving your daughter to anyone other than a Singh is like giving a goat to a butcher, and you will seven times be reborn as a crow. Marry your daughter to someone who has received either Maude hi pahul or rharan hi pahul, but who follows the Rahit. Bind your daughter ‘s hair in a knot, leaving none to hang down. Do not make friends with a child. [26, 28, 31-2, 47, 62, 74, 76, 78]


Sexual Morality

Keep away from another’s woman. He who has intercourse with another Sikh’s wife, daughter, sister, or mother goes to a horrible hell. Neither receive from nor give anything to anyone who sleeps with another ‘s woman. He who enjoys a prostitute goes to hell. The following sexual relations are prohibited: with a minor, a Muslim woman, a Brahman woman, a girl from one’s own sub-caste, a sister, or some other relative. Do not have intercourse with a menstruating woman. A family man can remain pure though there be many Khalsa Sikhs in his house. A Sikh who is a celibate sadhu (bihangam) must remain alone to stay pure. [11, 16, 35, 39, 53, 59, 82, 85, 89]



Set aside a tithe of what you earn for the Guru’s work. Give to the poor. [14, 17]

Crimes and Misdemeanors

Do not lie. Avoid anger, pride, greed, slander, violence, and falsehood. Do no wrong. Inflict no pain. Speak agreeably. Keep your heart pure. Free yourself from both happiness and sadness. Do not be arrogant. There are five deeds to be avoided if you aspire to spiritual liberation: embezzlement, taking another ‘s woman, slander, gambling, drinking alcohol. Do not rob. If outwardly a person is a Sikh yet inwardly is evil he will go to hell. [11, 14, 16, 28, 30, 52, 59, 77]


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